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RUSSIAN DEGTYAROV DP26 LIGHT MACHINE GUN in modification to accept the Japanese Type 11 Light Machine Gun, ammunition hopper feed system replacing the pan magazine. Accounts of the system function indicated some hazards thusly failure to adopt.

 

 



  

 

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JAPANESE IMPERIAL MARINES take barricade during their street fighting and progression in Shanghai, China action, 1938. The marine on the far right is armed with a Model M.P.28,II machine pistol utilizing a 32 round capacity magazine. The Japanese imported test samples of these European weapons in the 1930’s for consideration of troop issuance and which their navy adopted for the Special Forces.

 

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M.P. 34/I BERGMANN Machine Pistol in disassembled view. The system has a floating firing pin feature that was also designed into the Italian Beretta MP 1938A machine pistol. The weapon’s main spring encompasses the rear portion of the firing pin that is compressed between a collar and an end tube integrated with the bolt retracting assembly. 
 

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ITALIAN OFFICERS of Fabbrica Armi Regio Esercito [Royal Army Arms Factory] of Terni and Sezione Fabbrica Armi Regio Esercito [Section of the Royal Army Arms Factory] of Gardone Valtrompia, Italy entertain Japanese military personnel poising for photos during the production of Type "i" rifles through the 1938/39 contract period. The contract emanated from agreements of the 1936 Anti Comintern Pact between the two countries and Germany

 

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IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY Special Landing Force personnel patrol Shanghai perimeter gates in early 1932. The guard on the right is equipped with a Swiss Model 1920 Brevet Bergman Machine Pistol. The Japanese later modified them by adding a jacket collar for bayonet attachment.
 

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JAPANESE Special Naval Landing Forces cross the Long River in Central China in fall of 1938. The soldier at near left is shouldering a Type 11 Light Machine Gun. The soldier at right is carrying a Bergmann Type BE Machine Pistol. The Navy purchased a small amount of the European produced machine pistols in the early 1920’s for combat testing purposes.
 





  

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JAPANESE equipment from Guadalcanal allied recapture campaign August 1942.

 

The top weapon is a Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gun. The gun on the far left is a .303 caliber British Bren gun. The 4 center guns are Japanese Type 96 light machine guns. [Note the barrel muzzle cover on the weapon second from the left]. The weapon on the far right is a Madsen light machine gun.

 

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UNITED STATES MARINES patrolling in Shanghai, China to protect the United States interests during the Nationalist/Communist civil war in late 1920’s.

 

 NOTE:  The Browning and Thompson automatic weapons. The Thompson is a model 1921AC originally purchased for the U.S. Post Office useage. The Chinese Nationalist community considered the Thompson an excellent tool suited for their urban street activities. Eventually the Chinese would manufacture their own copies of the gun when U.S. and Great Britain supplies were unavailable.


 

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CZvz26 LIGHT MACHINE GUNS from different countries of manufacture.

Top weapon manufactured by Brno Zbrojovka of Czechoslovakia.

Bottom weapon is of Chinese manufacture. In 1939, the Japanese’s first direct purchase was for 2150 of the Czech weapons in 7.92mm for use in their war against the Chinese. The Chinese had already been producing the weapon under license for 10 years before in various arsenals and private industrial firms in China and Manchuria.

 

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AICHI TOKEI DENKI KK, [AICHI CLOCK AND ELECTRIC COMPANY LIMITED]


Plan view of the main headquarters and manufacturing plants located at 15 Aza Funakata Chitose, Minami-ku, Nagoya. The machine gun manufacturing plant is located at center right. Most were destroyed by 1945 bombing raids.
 

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CHINESE 8th ARMY machine gun squad in defensive position on the Great Wall following a clash between Chinese and Japanese forces on 7 July 1937.

The machine gun is a Japanese manufactured Type 11 light machine gun. NOTE insulated glove on the barrel for gun handling and box of spare cartridge hopper magazines located just below the gun position.


 

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VICKERS Type F machine gun mounted on a Japanese navy landing craft.

The Japanese purchased commercial class F weapons from the British and were used extensively on all types of surface vessels along with Type 92 Lewis guns where small caliber, [7.7 mm] arms were needed. Some were used in Aichi aircraft under the control of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. The guns were recorded as Vickers Type 92F machine guns.

 

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FRENCH HOTCHKISS, 13.2mm in a quad mount configuration.

This weapons system although considered by the French as their main machine cannon in a large caliber, was not put into mass production before the World War II German occupation. In 1927 the Japanese started negotiations with the Hotchkiss firm to produce the weapons. With approval of the French Government the Japanese would license and manufacture the system in their configurations as the Type 93 Automatic Cannon.


 


 

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The not so famous photo of the IWO JIMA flag raising.

The first flag, [front] was raised at Mount Suribachi on 23 February 1945. It was replaced by a larger flag, originally from Pearl Harbor, around noon of that day to provide greater visibility for all to see. The raising of the second flag prompted the more popular Joe Rosenthal photograph.
 

 

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JAPANESE marine convoy moving through the streets of Shanghai, China, after its capture in November 1937.

The Type 92 [Lewis] machine gun mounted on the cab of vehicle is supported by a portable Hotchkiss style tripod. Note the absence of the cartridge drum magazine.

 

 

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JAPANESE students display various patterns of machine guns produced by the Nambu firm, Chuo Kogyo K. K. in the late 1930’s.

Through World War II some 6 variations were manufactured by 3 civilian contractors in the 6.5mm cartridge.

These simple blowback type weapons had smooth bores for firing blanks and were eventually used with wooden bullets.

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TYPE 1 Japanese Navy Aircraft Machine Gun, caliber 7.92 mm.


 A copy of the Army’s Type 98 it was adopted in 1940 for use as a fixed and flexible weapon in various aircraft as the Nakajima C6N series reconnaissance aircraft and Mitsubishi Ki –21 bomber series. Yokosuka Naval Arsenal produced over 4000 through 1944. NOTE the forward pistol grip, which is a common feature the Type 1.

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Lewis Aircraft Machine Gun Mk III manufactured by Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited of Birmingham England.

This commercial model serial number A50961was used on a Japanese Navy aircraft. The Yokosuka Naval Arsenal had basic control responsibility for receiving, inspection and assignment of the guns.

They added their own inscription data for necessary identity. The Japanese would eventually manufacture the weapons under license agreement in 1931.

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A VERY RARE OCCASION
A Japanese soldier surrenders his Type 11 Light Machine Gun to U.S. Marine Ordnance men attached to the Sixth Marine Division after the Japanese surrender at Tsingtao, Shantung Province in Northern China on 6 October 1945.

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SUKA KAIGUN KOSHO, [Navy Arsenal].
Manufactured this Vickers class E system fixed machine gun serial number 2167. Produced in 1939 in 7.7mm, the Arsenal’s logo appears as an anchor on top of the receiver.


 

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Type 11 Nambu Light Machine Gun.
“The only advantage the hopper oiled arrangement gave was a vast amount of metal in front of the gunner while he sighted the weapon. I know of one case where a Japanese gunner…..was fighting a fifty yard head on dual…..an inspection later showed that [he] would have [died] very early in that ten minute affair if he had not had that heavy bullet deflecting hopper and oil reservoir in front of him.” J.G.-SFIA
 

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TYPE 91 Tank Machine Gun fitted with a telescopic sight and bipod for double duty as an infantry weapon.
Patterned after the Type 11 Light Machine Gun, this weapon was adopted for tank and armored vehicle usage in 1931. Manufactured in 6.5mm it fired full automatic only while cartridges were fed from a hopper system, foreground, containing 5 round cartridge clips. The forward telescope bracket is attached to the vehicle port mount.
 

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TYPE 92 Aircraft Machine Gun, Lewis pattern, produced by Toyokawa Kaigun Kosho [Toyokawa Navy Arsenal], in 1942.


Inscription reading from left to right:
Top row: Toyokawa Kaigun Kosho.
Second row: 92 type 7 millimeter 7 machine gun.
Third row: One model.
Fourth row: Showa 10 7 year, [17th year, 1942].
Fifth row: Toyo, [Toyokawa], 6513 number.
Sixth row: Product 6843 number.
 

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TYPE 100/1 MACHINE PISTOL in 8 mm caliber adopted by the Imperial Army in 1940.


It emanated from the Type II Model C [third style] weapon produced by K. Nambu’s firm Nambu-Ju Seizosho K.K. A second style would appear in 1944 and adopted as Type 100/2. Although the army jealously guarded their production, the navy’s marines had them in limited numbers during island invasions. Less than 9000 total were produced.
 

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TYPE 92 Lewis Machine Gun , with a ball mount for duty in aircraft as the attack plane Mitsubishi KI 21, and Kawanishi H8K flying boat.

The barrel is an original, matched to the weapon serial number 7958 produced by the Aichi firm in 1943.


 

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TYPE 96 LIGHT MACHINE GUN as a standard in caliber 6.5mm manufactured by two army arsenals and one civilian contractor through August 1940.

TOP PHOTO shows the weapon in a canvas cover for early experiments in paratroop operations. With some changes it would eventually be adopted as the universal cover.
 

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TYPE 97 Tank Machine gun adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army for tank usage in 1937 and replacing the T-91 Tank Machine Gun in most armored vehicles.
The Navy also used the weapon in their combat vehicles as the Type 92 Armored Car. The barrel jacket protecting the weapon from exterior vehicle exposure has been opened to show disassembly. The cartridge magazine, foreground, is of straight configuration following the Z.B. Brno Light Machine Gun style, rather than typically curved, a feature of later Nambu style light machine guns.
 

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TYPE 98 Japanese Army Aircraft Machine Gun, caliber 7.92 mm [German].


A direct copy of the German MG 15 produced by Rheinmetall-Borsig A.G. of Derendorf, Germany in the 1930’s for the German Air Force. The Japanese obtained a license agreement in 1937, officially adopted it in 1938 and started production in 1940. Cartridges are fed from a 75 round ‘saddle drum’ magazine.
 

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TYPE 99 MK 1, 20 mm Machine Cannon.


This weapon was an adopted standard for the Japanese Navy in flexible style. This photo shows the early pattern with the drum cartridge magazine; later patterns featured a belt feed system. Long range bombers as the Mitsubishi G4M3 utilized this flexible pattern mounted in dorsal and tail turrets.

 

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TYPE II MODEL A, machine pistol in 8mm pistol cartridge with patent issued to Kijiro Nambu in 1935.
Rejected for adoption by the Army it had limited use by the Imperial Naval Marines during the Sino-Japanese War and the Shanghai invasion. Note the 50 round cartridge magazine extending from the pistol grip. A unique feature, which would not resurface in sub machine gun design for nearly fifteen years in Czechoslovakia and Israel patterns.
 

 

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The rusty hatch from the USS Arizona on which more than 1,000 men are entombed.......

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JAPANESE TYPE 93 machine gun in caliber 13.2 mm shown on an emplacement on Saipan.


The weapon mounted on a naval pedestal mount served as a dual-purpose installation for anti-aircraft or ground action. The Japanese produced this licensed copy series from the French Hotchkiss firm.

 

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JAPANESE TYPE 96 AUTOMATIC CANNON.


This 25 mm assemblage shown on the triple mount, one of several configurations, was developed from the Hotchkiss system, licensed from the French firm and adopted in 1936. Imported for the Imperial Japanese Navy as early as1933, and with eventual homeland production, they were used extensively throughout World War II for both surface vessel and land installations. Over 32,300 were produced by war’s end in 1945. The Hotchkiss weapon systems would be unique in some ten separate designs adopted by the Japanese military.

 

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NAVAL 7.7mm aircraft machine guns converted for ground troop usage.


Type 97, Vickers system belt feed, fixed pattern, with a metal loop stock and wire sear release. A solenoid used in the original trigger assembly is visible on top of the receiver above the cartridge feed slot.
At times and according to dictates of conditions, aircraft weapons were converted for ground defense usage. Most conversion materials were secured from provisions at hand in the field as seen in the simplistic tripod shown with this specimen.
 



 
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